Author: liddykilford

18 years old. Love digital design and abstract manipulated photography. Currently studying a bachelor of design majoring in visual communications.

Conversations in Creative Cultures : Week 6 Part 2 – Final Blog Post.

Screen Shot 2017-08-27 at 10.17.19 amThis Image above is of Hinemihi, A Maori Marae built by master carver Wero Taroi and assisted by Tene Waitere. Hinemihi was built in Te Wairoa in 1881 near the Pink and White Terraces near Mount Tarawera. Originally, this Marae was supposed to have been a meeting house for tribal gathering and also a venue to entertain visitors during the early days of New Zealand tourism. After the eruption of Mount Tarawera in 1886, Hinemihi was sold to Lord Onslow, the Governor General of New Zealand who relocated her to his estate at Clandon Park in England where the photo above was taken and has been there from 1892. People connect with her through genealogy she is their Whare tupuna. The Maori tribe of Ngati Ranana have adopted her and their own as their Marae. Children stage Kapa Haka and Pacific dance performances and hold an annual Kohanga Reo hangi. Although this Whare has and is being used for many different things like a boat shed, a storage room and a momento of paradise to the Onslow Family, All of identity has stayed intact even though she is physically dislocated from her tribal origins she still has stayed present in tribal memory and kept alive by Ngati Ranana. Therefore being able to give rise to new ideas and concepts in current debates. (Schwarzpaul 45)

I found an article on Stuff.co.nz by Hannah Mckee in October 2016 about Hinemihi, The meeting place away from home. Hannah Mckee interviewed Jim Schuster, The great, Great grandson of the carver Ene Waitere, Jim visited Hinemihi in England when he first visited in 1993. It was a very emotional time for him. Hinemihi still is’nt on home land where she belongs. “We wouldn’t say no if they offered it to us, but I think we’ll always have to wait for them to make the decision, I don’t think we can jump up and down to fight and get her back because they legally bought her and to get anything out of the National Trust you’ve got to change English law, so it would be difficult.” said Schuster. This comment just shows that the way of Maori art from more than 120 years ago, are more seen as art instead of the family/Whakapapa meeting house and might not ever be back on home soil as she was fairly bought back in 1892.
Maori Art has changed over the years. stated in ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” by Leonard Bell, Maori cultural art is seen to have changed because of the way that Europeans depicted the art. Leonard states in his writing that artwork made was generally based around Maori myths just like the examples in the reading. Artwork done by colonials is more true and realistic because of the way that the Europeans have changed the outlook on the Maori by color and differences. In the reading “Cultural safety” Written by G. Burke. The issue of cultural difference is stated. I think this could be related to the Europeans not being able to fully get the Maori Art knowledge and history known completely. Because of this, the Tourism industry. Tourism in New Zealand has been fundamental in the shaping of New Zealand ever since the arrive of the Europeans. Artwork has been distorted by the Europeans not knowing and viewing everything from the Maori Culture properly, therefore the Maori Art is different and not the same as it used to be.

 

Bell, Leonard ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” 1890-1914 Art Journal Vol 49. No. 2, Depictions of the Dispossessed (Summer, 1990) pp 142-149

Burke, G. (1995). Cultural Safety. In Barton, C., Burke, G., Weiermair, P. Cultural Safety- Contemporary Art from New Zealand. (pp14-31). Wellington, New Zealand- City Gallery.

Engels-Schwarzpaul, A-Chr, and K-A. Wikiteria. “Take me away… in search of original dwelling.” (2010).

MCKEE, HANNAH. “Hinemihi, The Maori Meeting House Far Away From Home.” Stuff. N.p., 2017. Web. 26 Aug. 2017. http://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/arts/85241386/hinemihi-the-maori-meeting-house-far-away-from-home

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Conversations in Creative Cultures : Week 6 Part 1 – Overall meaning of “Take me Away…In Search of Original Dwelling” Engels-Schwarzpaul, A-Chr, and K-A. Wikiteria.

This reading gives an in-depth explanation and insight of the ways that traditional Maori Whare and Samoan Fale have been messed with from centuries ago and taken into exhibits. From the stories of Mataatua Whare Tupuna and Hinemihi, both Maori and had either been taken from them or agreed to have been displayed in exhibits. before the twentieth century indigenous houses were usually taken without much consultation. Whare were displayed in England, Melbourne, Dunedin and finally Otago before Manaatua got their Whare back. Hinemoa was displayed in England after being sold to Lord Onslow. several Samoan Fale have been on display at the church of latter day saints. Also following all of this. there are now places where people pay to view the likes of a Whare in places such as the Maori Village in Rotorua.

 

 

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 5 – Colonial Art

I have taken a different approach to finding Colonial Art. I came across this website of contemporary art that has been done in ways that colonial artists did there art back in the 19th and 20th centuries.
“Sofia Minson’s contemporary Maori oil portraits are an ongoing series of works that explore the modern meaning of heritage for an indigenous culture living in a post-colonial society.” (Minson)
This artwork was done with oil paint in a large scale and is very detailed, has highly realistic eyes and often the portraits are painted with a grey or sepia palette.

The reading written by Leonard Bell ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” is basically about how European artists didn’t do enough research into the Maori Culture when they came to New Zealand. This is why art that the European did of the Maori is not viewed right and has more of a western feel to some of them.
Leonard states in his writing that artwork made was generally based around Maori myths just like the examples in the reading.
Artwork done by colonials is more true and realistic because of the way that the Europeans have changed the outlook on the Maori by color and differences.

Bell, Leonard. ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” 1890-1914 Art Journal Vol 49. No. 2, Depictions of the Dispossessed (Summer, 1990) pp 142-149

Minson, Sofia. http://www.newzealandartwork.com/contemporary-maori-portrait-series

Tame-Iti-Sofia-Minson
Sofia Minson http://www.newzealandartwork.com/contemporary-maori-portrait-series

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 4 – Something I Didn’t know: Tauiwi

I decided to read Chapter 5 of Tauiwi, written by Ranginui Walker. This chapter discusses several different points over a timeline from when the Maori had been in occupation of New Zealand for at least 800 years, to when the Treaty of Waitangi came about in 1840. (Walker 78)

While i was reading this. I was unaware of everything that actually happened before the declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi were founded. I studied the Treaty of Waitangi in High school so have some prior knowledge.

What I didn’t know was that the Maori actually had occupation of New Zealand for at least 800 years before the first encounter of the European made by Abel Tasman in 1642. (Walker 78) I was also unaware of the fact that the Maori Tribes in the South Island gave him a very unfavorable impression and killed four of Abel Tasman’s men which caused him to leave the South Island and it wasn’t until whole Century actually passed before James Cook, another European, arrived in the country in 1769. James Cook reported seeing large Seal colonies and big stands of native timber. (Walker 78)
It was very interesting to read how the Maori willingly traded fish with James Cook. But never their prized possessions. James Cook also introduced the Pig and the Potato as delicacy’s. (Walker 79)

Another thing that interested me was how in 1814, Samuel Marsden arrived in the Bay of Islands to introduce Christianity to New Zealand and then the Musket Wars and the Peacemakers all before the Declaration of Independence and finally the Treaty of Waitangi (Walker 79) to attempt at solving all conflicts and issues between the European and the Maori.

Walker, R. Tauiwi (1990) Chapter 5.

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 3 – Differences and Connections Between Kaupapa and Matauranga.

Both Kaupapa and Matauranga are prominent in Maori education and research circles. They appear in a wide variety of contexts to articulate and advance certain aspects of Maori education and development. They both are generally utilized to support activities designed to generate benefits for Maori and to give expression to Maori ways of doing things, aspects of Maori knowledge and the Maori world view. the meanings of Kaupapa and Matauranga them-self overlap but are not synonyms of each-other.

Kaupapa Maori is popularly used by Maori in a farely broad way that refers to any plan of action created by Maori expressing aspirations and certain values and principles. Tikanga Maori and cultural behaviors through Kaupapa are made tangible. Kaupapa generally appears in educational settings like health providers or a Marae. Popular since the 19th century. A key aspect is the political notion of challenging the privileging of western knowledge in the academy purposefully to allow Maori knowledge.

Matauranga Maori is to not be confused with Kaupapa because it doesnt refer to any kind of methodology or set of explicit actions or goals. Matauranga Maori is a modern phrase referring to a body or continuum of knowledge with Polynesian origins that survive to the present day. The arrival of Europeans in the 18th – 20th century brought in a major impact to the life of the knowledge endangering it in many ways. Knowledge was then recreated through the encounter of the Europeans and the experience of the new Notion of New Zealand.

The difference between Kaupapa Maori and Kaupapa Maori in the absence of explicit interest in the ethnic category in Matauranga Maori. Maori history was not always used to refer to maori people but something that naturally and organically comes to life.Matauranga Maori does not suggest any actions on the way that Kaupapa Maori suggests a plan of action. Matauranga is jut a label of a body of knowledge. Not what we would do with it.

Te Ahukararamu Charles Royal, Politics and Knowledge: Kaupapa and Matauranga Maori

 

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 1-2 Part B: Hirini Moko Mead Response:

This chapter of the book “Tikanga Maori, Living by Maori Values” written by Hirini Moko Mead considers the underlying principles and values of Tikanga.  There are many common variables like the weather at the time that the ceremony is supposed to commence. Principles and Values are very important.
Two very important aspect of Tikana are Tika and Pono. Tika meaning correct and Pono meaning true or genuine in terms of the principles of Maoritanga.  Pono has been neglected in Aotearoa but seems to be understood in parts of Polynesia, Tahiti and Hawai’i. “In understanding the nature of Tikanga it is advisable to emphasize the concept of Pono because it is an old idea and its meaning is free of other connotations.” (Mead 26) Take-utu-ea is considered to be incorrect and a breach of Tikanga. this requires a resolution of some sort. Williams argues that Tikanga Maori deal not so much with rules and regulations but with values subject to cultural tests. Whanaungatanga is one of the values associated with Tikanga. Whanaungatanga embraces Whakapapa and focuses on relationships. Mana is the personal and group relationships. more so the relationship of individuals in groups. Tapu is another important element of Tikanga. We respect our Tapu of people and buildings for example not stepping over a sleeping person as its to do with the Tapu of the person. Utu is connected to Take-utu-ea as revenge or reciprocity like choosing the wrong pathway that could be found inapropriate. Noa and Ea is the indication of a successful closing of a sequence and the restoration of relationships. To me the value of Tapu is very important as it has specific boundaries. Stepping over a person while sleeping is Tapu and from growing up in Kapa Haka i learnt that Tapu is bad and if you break the values of spirutuality. For example in Kapa Haka we had Rakau. A Rakau is essentially a weapon in the form of a stick. The head of our Rakau was never allowed to touch the ground as it was said to be Tapu and if we were seen with the head touching the ground we had to do push ups. Its a sign of  ignorance and very disrespectful.

Instead of a map i just explained everything.

Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003.

 

 

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 1-2 – Part A. The Powhiri Process.

Powhiri Process:
1: Waera:
A Waera is a form of Karakia performed by Manuhiri before entering a strange Marae. A Waera is said to protect the performers from hard through spiritual powers. (Higgins and Moorfield 77)

2: Wero:
The Manuhiri move slowly onto the Marae and a warrior from the Tangatawhenua apprroaches the Manuhiri with an item (Taki). If accepted, The Manuhiri were deemed peaceful. (Higgins and Moorfield 78)

3: Karanga:
One the male leader of the Manuhiri picks up the Taki, the women of the Tangatawhenua will performs a karanga. The women of the Manuhiri will respond to the Karanga and this usually starts the process of the Powhiri. (Higgins and Moorfield 78)

4: Whaikorero:
There is a formal speech made by the Kaia that usually begins with a Whakaraaraa warning call before acknowledging the dead. This is also sometimes a chant. Once this is finished there is a Waita (song) a Koha of appreciation. (Higgins and Moorfield 80)

5: Hongi:
after the Whaikorero, The Manuhiri leader leads their group to shake hands and Hongi. A Hongi is a nose to nose touch with a handshake between 2 people, one from the Tangatawhenua and the other from the Manuhiri. (Higgins and Moorfield 81-82)

6: Kai:
Both the Tangatawhenua and the Manuhiri go inside the Marae for Kai (food) made by the Tangatawhenua. Tjis is a significant practice of Manaakitanga. The work Marae as an adjective means generosity. (Higgins and Moorfield 82)

7: Karakia and Mihimihi:
A bell is ring at the end of the men to indicate it is time for a Karakia and the Tangatawhenua leader speaks. Higgins and Moorfield 83)