This chapter of the book “Tikanga Maori, Living by Maori Values” written by Hirini Moko Mead considers the underlying principles and values of Tikanga. There are many common variables like the weather at the time that the ceremony is supposed to commence. Principles and Values are very important.
Two very important aspect of Tikana are Tika and Pono. Tika meaning correct and Pono meaning true or genuine in terms of the principles of Maoritanga. Pono has been neglected in Aotearoa but seems to be understood in parts of Polynesia, Tahiti and Hawai’i. “In understanding the nature of Tikanga it is advisable to emphasize the concept of Pono because it is an old idea and its meaning is free of other connotations.” (Mead 26) Take-utu-ea is considered to be incorrect and a breach of Tikanga. this requires a resolution of some sort. Williams argues that Tikanga Maori deal not so much with rules and regulations but with values subject to cultural tests. Whanaungatanga is one of the values associated with Tikanga. Whanaungatanga embraces Whakapapa and focuses on relationships. Mana is the personal and group relationships. more so the relationship of individuals in groups. Tapu is another important element of Tikanga. We respect our Tapu of people and buildings for example not stepping over a sleeping person as its to do with the Tapu of the person. Utu is connected to Take-utu-ea as revenge or reciprocity like choosing the wrong pathway that could be found inapropriate. Noa and Ea is the indication of a successful closing of a sequence and the restoration of relationships. To me the value of Tapu is very important as it has specific boundaries. Stepping over a person while sleeping is Tapu and from growing up in Kapa Haka i learnt that Tapu is bad and if you break the values of spirutuality. For example in Kapa Haka we had Rakau. A Rakau is essentially a weapon in the form of a stick. The head of our Rakau was never allowed to touch the ground as it was said to be Tapu and if we were seen with the head touching the ground we had to do push ups. Its a sign of ignorance and very disrespectful.
Instead of a map i just explained everything.