Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 5 – Colonial Art

I have taken a different approach to finding Colonial Art. I came across this website of contemporary art that has been done in ways that colonial artists did there art back in the 19th and 20th centuries.
“Sofia Minson’s contemporary Maori oil portraits are an ongoing series of works that explore the modern meaning of heritage for an indigenous culture living in a post-colonial society.” (Minson)
This artwork was done with oil paint in a large scale and is very detailed, has highly realistic eyes and often the portraits are painted with a grey or sepia palette.

The reading written by Leonard Bell ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” is basically about how European artists didn’t do enough research into the Maori Culture when they came to New Zealand. This is why art that the European did of the Maori is not viewed right and has more of a western feel to some of them.
Leonard states in his writing that artwork made was generally based around Maori myths just like the examples in the reading.
Artwork done by colonials is more true and realistic because of the way that the Europeans have changed the outlook on the Maori by color and differences.

Bell, Leonard. ‘The Representation of the Maori by European Artists in New Zealand” 1890-1914 Art Journal Vol 49. No. 2, Depictions of the Dispossessed (Summer, 1990) pp 142-149

Minson, Sofia.

Sofia Minson

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 4 – Something I Didn’t know: Tauiwi

I decided to read Chapter 5 of Tauiwi, written by Ranginui Walker. This chapter discusses several different points over a timeline from when the Maori had been in occupation of New Zealand for at least 800 years, to when the Treaty of Waitangi came about in 1840. (Walker 78)

While i was reading this. I was unaware of everything that actually happened before the declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi were founded. I studied the Treaty of Waitangi in High school so have some prior knowledge.

What I didn’t know was that the Maori actually had occupation of New Zealand for at least 800 years before the first encounter of the European made by Abel Tasman in 1642. (Walker 78) I was also unaware of the fact that the Maori Tribes in the South Island gave him a very unfavorable impression and killed four of Abel Tasman’s men which caused him to leave the South Island and it wasn’t until whole Century actually passed before James Cook, another European, arrived in the country in 1769. James Cook reported seeing large Seal colonies and big stands of native timber. (Walker 78)
It was very interesting to read how the Maori willingly traded fish with James Cook. But never their prized possessions. James Cook also introduced the Pig and the Potato as delicacy’s. (Walker 79)

Another thing that interested me was how in 1814, Samuel Marsden arrived in the Bay of Islands to introduce Christianity to New Zealand and then the Musket Wars and the Peacemakers all before the Declaration of Independence and finally the Treaty of Waitangi (Walker 79) to attempt at solving all conflicts and issues between the European and the Maori.

Walker, R. Tauiwi (1990) Chapter 5.

Conversations in Creative Cultures: Week 3: Differences and Connections Between Kaupapa and Matauranga.

Both Kaupapa and Matauranga are prominent in Maori education and research circles. They appear in a wide variety of contexts to articulate and advance certain aspects of Maori education and development. They both are generally utilized to support activities designed to generate benefits for Maori and to give expression to Maori ways of doing things, aspects of Maori knowledge and the Maori world view. the meanings of Kaupapa and Matauranga them-self overlap but are not synonyms of each-other.

Kaupapa Maori is popularly used by Maori in a farely broad way that refers to any plan of action created by Maori expressing aspirations and certain values and principles. Tikanga Maori and cultural behaviors through Kaupapa are made tangible. Kaupapa generally appears in educational settings like health providers or a Marae. Popular since the 19th century. A key aspect is the political notion of challenging the privileging of western knowledge in the academy purposefully to allow Maori knowledge.

Matauranga Maori is to not be confused with Kaupapa because it doesnt refer to any kind of methodology or set of explicit actions or goals. Matauranga Maori is a modern phrase referring to a body or continuum of knowledge with Polynesian origins that survive to the present day. The arrival of Europeans in the 18th – 20th century brought in a major impact to the life of the knowledge endangering it in many ways. Knowledge was then recreated through the encounter of the Europeans and the experience of the new Notion of New Zealand.

The difference between Kaupapa Maori and Kaupapa Maori in the absence of explicit interest in the ethnic category in Matauranga Maori. Maori history was not always used to refer to maori people but something that naturally and organically comes to life.Matauranga Maori does not suggest any actions on the way that Kaupapa Maori suggests a plan of action. Matauranga is jut a label of a body of knowledge. Not what we would do with it.

Te Ahukararamu Charles Royal, Politics and Knowledge: Kaupapa and Matauranga Maori


Week 1-2 Conversations in Creative Cultures. Part B: Hirini Moko Mead Response:

This chapter of the book “Tikanga Maori, Living by Maori Values” written by Hirini Moko Mead considers the underlying principles and values of Tikanga.  There are many common variables like the weather at the time that the ceremony is supposed to commence. Principles and Values are very important.
Two very important aspect of Tikana are Tika and Pono. Tika meaning correct and Pono meaning true or genuine in terms of the principles of Maoritanga.  Pono has been neglected in Aotearoa but seems to be understood in parts of Polynesia, Tahiti and Hawai’i. “In understanding the nature of Tikanga it is advisable to emphasize the concept of Pono because it is an old idea and its meaning is free of other connotations.” (Mead 26) Take-utu-ea is considered to be incorrect and a breach of Tikanga. this requires a resolution of some sort. Williams argues that Tikanga Maori deal not so much with rules and regulations but with values subject to cultural tests. Whanaungatanga is one of the values associated with Tikanga. Whanaungatanga embraces Whakapapa and focuses on relationships. Mana is the personal and group relationships. more so the relationship of individuals in groups. Tapu is another important element of Tikanga. We respect our Tapu of people and buildings for example not stepping over a sleeping person as its to do with the Tapu of the person. Utu is connected to Take-utu-ea as revenge or reciprocity like choosing the wrong pathway that could be found inapropriate. Noa and Ea is the indication of a successful closing of a sequence and the restoration of relationships. To me the value of Tapu is very important as it has specific boundaries. Stepping over a person while sleeping is Tapu and from growing up in Kapa Haka i learnt that Tapu is bad and if you break the values of spirutuality. For example in Kapa Haka we had Rakau. A Rakau is essentially a weapon in the form of a stick. The head of our Rakau was never allowed to touch the ground as it was said to be Tapu and if we were seen with the head touching the ground we had to do push ups. Its a sign of  ignorance and very disrespectful.

Instead of a map i just explained everything.

Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Ngā Pūtake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles And Values”. Tikanga Māori: Living By Māori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003.



Week 1-2 Conversations in Creative Cultures. Part A : The Powhiri Process.

Powhiri Process:
1: Waera:
A Waera is a form of Karakia performed by Manuhiri before entering a strange Marae. A Waera is said to protect the performers from hard through spiritual powers. (Higgins and Moorfield 77)

2: Wero:
The Manuhiri move slowly onto the Marae and a warrior from the Tangatawhenua apprroaches the Manuhiri with an item (Taki). If accepted, The Manuhiri were deemed peaceful. (Higgins and Moorfield 78)

3: Karanga:
One the male leader of the Manuhiri picks up the Taki, the women of the Tangatawhenua will performs a karanga. The women of the Manuhiri will respond to the Karanga and this usually starts the process of the Powhiri. (Higgins and Moorfield 78)

4: Whaikorero:
There is a formal speech made by the Kaia that usually begins with a Whakaraaraa warning call before acknowledging the dead. This is also sometimes a chant. Once this is finished there is a Waita (song) a Koha of appreciation. (Higgins and Moorfield 80)

5: Hongi:
after the Whaikorero, The Manuhiri leader leads their group to shake hands and Hongi. A Hongi is a nose to nose touch with a handshake between 2 people, one from the Tangatawhenua and the other from the Manuhiri. (Higgins and Moorfield 81-82)

6: Kai:
Both the Tangatawhenua and the Manuhiri go inside the Marae for Kai (food) made by the Tangatawhenua. Tjis is a significant practice of Manaakitanga. The work Marae as an adjective means generosity. (Higgins and Moorfield 82)

7: Karakia and Mihimihi:
A bell is ring at the end of the men to indicate it is time for a Karakia and the Tangatawhenua leader speaks. Higgins and Moorfield 83)

Te Ao Hurihuri – Cyber Bullying Final post.

My topic was bullying. mainly cyber bullying and what it is and how it has affected some people. In a particular case of a teenager from Canada called Amanda Todd. I chose to research into her case because i heard about it back in 2012 when her story went viral. now her video on Youtube has over 12 million views and was a huge worldwide debate. Amanda Todd was bullied and cyber bullied since the age of 13. She was manipulated by someone who had an explicit photo of her which lead to her moving homes and schools three times and she was followed each time by this offender. She made this video of flash cards that explained her story. This is the video on Youtube with over 12 million hits. and only about a month later from her posting this video, Amanda Todd killed herself in her home at the age of 15 because of bullying and cyber bullying. I think there isn’t enough being done in the world to prevent bullying and cyber bullying. There also is not enough awareness of the issue and young teenagers are being exposed to social media at a age that is too young and parents are not doing enough to prevent this. The aim of my creative piece of work is to raise awareness of cyber bullying and the impact it can have on people. The words I used are words that bullies use to bully people. it is more common for bullies to hide behind the computer screen rather than physical face to face bullying. I used black white and red as my color scheme because red is a strong color that symbolizes horror and blood and pain. Black and white are neutral shades that make the red stand out more also. To me this is a powerful image and you can see that she is on her laptop and its like all these words are being said to her and its dark and a horrible thing to go through. Why do people feel the need to cyber bully? you don’t know what is going on in there home or in there life. bullying in teens leads to depression and even suicide. People like Amanda Todd are strong influences on today’s society of teens. Amanda Todd is just one example of cyber bullying going too far and ended a young persons life because if a few peoples dumb cyber bullying.teenagers don’t understand the impact of what words can actually do. “sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me” is a false quote that kids use to try and be strong. but words hurt just as much if not more and that point couldn’t be made more clear.


Te Ao Hurihuri – Cyber Bullying artist research

I googled cyber bullying artwork and found a few different types of artwork. paintings and photo shop made artwork mostly.  I wanted to talk about the words used when cyber bullying. There are so many hurtful words used. ‘Sticks and stones may break my bones but names will never hurt me’ is a stock response to verbal bullying in school playgrounds throughout the English-speaking world. It sounds a little antiquated these days and has no doubt been superseded by more streetwise comebacks. The earliest citation of it that I can find is from an American periodical with a largely black audience, The Christian Recorder, March 1862: Remember the old adage, ‘Sticks and stones will break my bones, but words will never harm me’. True courage consists in doing what is right, despite the jeers and sneers of our companions. (Martin) This quote is a well known quote but in my eyes its wrong. words can definitely hurt people and they do strongly. my idea of artwork is to use silhouette shapes and words to get my point across. similar to this image that i found on twitter. Idea

(“DPCDSB On Twitter”)

DPCDSB On Twitter”. Twitter. N.p., 2017. Web. 3 June 2017.

Martin, Gary. “‘Sticks And Stones May Break My Bones’ – The Meaning And Origin Of This Phrase”. Phrasefinder. N.p., 2017. Web. 5 June 2017.